Seven things you may not have known about Tipu Sultan, India’s first freedom fighter

Seven things you may not have known about Tipu Sultan, India’s first freedom fighter

A new book examines the myths and realities of Tipu Sultan’s life and reign

by Mohsin Rifai & Ibn Faqr

What we didn’t know

  1. Tipu was the most feared Indian of his time in Britain. When he died there were jubilant celebrations in Britain, with authors, playwrights and painters creating works to celebrate it. The siege and looting of Tipu’s capital at Srirangapattana, for example, is the opening scene of Wilkie Collins’ famous novel, The Moonstone.
  2. He was the only Indian ruler who understood the dangers the British posed to India, and fought four wars to oust them from India – in that sense he could be called the first freedom fighter in the subcontinent.
  3. Tipu sent missions to the Ottoman and French rulers, seeking them as allies to oust the British from India.
  4. Tipu was fascinated by western science and technology, and got gun makers, engineers, clockmakers and other experts from France to Mysore. He then set up his own manufacture of bronze cannons, ammunition and muskets to “Make in Mysore”.
  5. Tipu extensively used tiger imagery to convey a sense of his awesome power. Tiger images emblazoned his golden throne, his textiles, coins, swords and his soldiers uniforms. He also used the Sun symbol, long associated with royalty and divinity among his Hindu subjects.
  6. Tipu wrote a Book of Dreams, the Khwab Nama, in which he recorded his dreams. He looked for signs and portents about the outcome of his battles in his dreams.
  7. Tipu was not an outside invader – he was a son of the soil, the third generation of his family to be born in south India.
  8. Tipu’s chief minister Purnaiya, was a Hindu, as were several prominent nobles at his court.
  9. Tipu was a generous patron of several Hindu temples, including the Sri Ranganatha temple near his main palace at Srirangapattana, and the Sringeri Math, whose swami he respected and called Jagadguru.
Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonelli
Tipu Sultan seated on his throne, by Anna Tonelli

Tipu Sultan versus the British

For thirty years, first Haidar Ali, Tipu’s father, then Tipu himself, had been at the forefront of the British public’s consciousness. Terrifying tales of attacks on British forces and threats to trading settlements such as Madras appeared in the newspapers of the day, embellished by distance as they were carried home by sea.

Over the decades and through four Anglo-Mysore wars, people hungrily awaited reports of the latest outrage perpetrated by the so-called tyrants. The return of British prisoners of war, some of whom had been held captive in Mysore for several years, led to the writing of books that told harrowing stories of hardship and torture.

That many of these accounts were self-serving was of little interest to their avid readers. So by the time he died at the hands of General Harris’s troops, as they besieged his island capital in 1799,Tipu Sultan was possibly the most famous Indian, if not villain, in the United Kingdom.

Not surprisingly, celebrations in Britain at the news of Tipu’s demise fuelled further creative output on the part of not only authors and playwrights but also artists, who put paint to canvas to glorify the victory. Careers were launched and some ended.

Tipu Sultan's forces during the Siege of Srirangapatna
Tipu Sultan’s forces during the Siege of Srirangapatna

Arthur Wellesley, later to become the Duke of Wellington, famous for defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, was placed in charge of Srirangapattana and then went on to overcome the Marathas in 1803, at the Battle of Assaye. India was Wellesley’s proving ground.

The governor-general, Lord Mornington, who was Arthur’s older brother Richard, did not fare so well. Having ordered the attack on Mysore in defiance of his political masters at home, and despite energetic attempts by his supporters to vindicate him, his only reward was an undistinguished Irish peerage and retirement.

Well into the nineteenth century, the infamous figure of Tipu Sultan held sway in the public mind. As late as 1868, Wilkie Collins chose the siege of Srirangapattana and its subsequent looting as the setting for the opening of his bestselling novel The Moonstone.

One has to wonder what Tipu would have made of it all. Also, would he have cared? Very probably, he would. To terrorise his enemies was his goal and in that he had succeeded, not only through his actions but also by his clever use of imagery and symbolism. Although he did not realise it, his choice of the tiger motif for his insignia resonated strongly with the British, whose own emblem is the lion.

It is no coincidence that the Seringapatam medal, awarded to those who had taken part in the siege, depicts a rampaging lion mauling a supine tiger. The ecstatic celebrations would also have confirmed in Tipu’s mind that he had been correct in his assumption that the East India Company’s expansionist activities were a credible threat to the freedom of the subcontinent’s inhabitants, that he was the last bulwark against British imperial desires.

It is this prescience that distinguishes Tipu and his father from their contemporaries. With Tipu gone, the Company was able, in his own words, to ‘fix [its] talons’ ever deeper into Indian soil.

Excerpted with permission from Tiger: The Life of Tipu Sultan, Kate Brittlebank, Juggernaut.

So Who’s Behind “Bhendi Bazar Building Tragedy” !

Bhendi Bazar, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

31st August 2017, Thursday – Around 8:30, Bhendi Bazar Woke Up with a Shocking & Heart Breaking Building Collapse Tragedy “HUSSAINI MANZIL”

BHENDI BAZAR : 

More then Around 150 Years Old Centuric Area “BHENDI BAZAR” of Financial Capital Of India (Hindustan) – MUMBAI.

Bhendi Bazar Woke Up With Such Tragedy which has written in his history for forever. Hussaini Manzil to whom News Channels are Indicating as Arsiwala Building has Collapse over another Building.

Rescue workers, including those from the National Disaster National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), searched for more than a dozen people, who are still feared trapped in a 117-year-old, five-storey building that collapsed in Mumbai this morning, two days after torrential rain lashed the city. 21 people have died and 34, including four firemen, are injured and have been rushed to hospital. 28 people have been rescued so far.


“There was a massive bang. We couldn’t see anything due to the dust and smoke. Once the dust settled, we realised it was a building collapse,” said Amina Sheikh a resident of the Bhendi Bazaar area, a famous and busy marketplace in one of Mumbai’s most historic districts. (NDTV India)

 A resident of area said people had not been given proper details of what type of new housing they would be provided, making them reluctant to leave.
(Sources : NDTV india)

● REASON BEHIND THE TRAGEDY WHICH HAVEN’T HIGHLIGHTED YET.I

           ●REASON ONE (SAIFEE BURHANI UPLIFTMENT PROJECT)

Y

Saifee Burhani Upliftment Trust Office, Known as Mufaddal Shopping Arcade at Noorbaug, Dongri, Mumbai.

Saifee Burhani Upliftment Project Which is Under a developer by SBUT (Saifee Burhani Upliftment Trust), Its Trust which Operates by Dawoodi Bohra Community or Religion.

They Dream Of Cluster Redevelopment has come true but May it would Be Nightmare for Others too, For Brighter Future & Blossoming Flowers Has became torns for Other Citizens.

But How ?

Over 60 % of Bhendi Bazar’s Residents are Against The Saifee Burhani Upliftment Project Because of They Faith & Some of Because of Roughness & Selfishness by Community towards Other Communities which even once lead Riot type Situation at the SBUT office which locates at Bhendi Bazar which has Recorded Heavy Casualties Of SBUT office attacked by Angry Residents.

Contruction of Cluster 1 Or Phase 1 or Expansion of Bohra Temple Which Locates at Bhendi Bazar Attracts Most of Residents of Area as Unacceptable Expansion of Heights “FSI”.

Saifee Burhani Upliftment Trust (SBUT) has Demolished Many of Buildings to Create they Empire but Unfortunately They have Demolished some of Most Historical Buildings who used to Process The Best Material & Contruction Which can survive More 100 Years ahead. while Most of Buildings Is Still Dilapidated, They (SBUT) Promised According to Law to BMC that they will Dig The Ground over 33ft but They Dig up the Ground Over 55ft Which Has leaved Weaking JJ Flyover & Other Structures of Bhendi Bazar.

JJ flyover at Bhendi Bazar of Whom Pillars has Weaken due to Vibrations & Beyound Digging for Contruction of Cluster 1 by SBUT and even has lead Weaking other Structures of Area.

Today, SBUT Contruction work has step beyond the limits that they workers do over night and the usage of Such Machines that Pressurize such Vibrations which is leading All of Near By Buildings as Weaking they roots.

Hamari Buildings ko Weak karne me ye project walo ka hi haat hai

~ Rauf Shaikh, Bhendi Bazar Resident 

SBUT Contruction site illegal work Of digging lead Weaking all of near by buildings 

Residents of bhendi bazar sleeps with fears in they heart that tomorrow may due to this (project work) they buildings will collapse too

No Govt Authorities has taken action against them, Residents Are thirty for they Justice.


What You think?

Who have to be punish First ?

AURANGZEB – BUILDER OF TEMPLES, GRANTED LANDS TO TEMPLES, CASH TO HINDU’S, JAIN & SIKH ?


Magnificent Mughal Emperor of Hindustan Hazrat Aurangzeb Alamgir (Rehmatullah Allaieh), Well Known as Famous For his Justice ~European Historians


LUCKNOW: Dr. Bishambhernath Pandey, a freedom fighter, a historian, Parliamentarian, scholar & ex-Governor of Odisha wrote that Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb was not a fundamentalist who destroyed Temples as alleged by many biased historians.

Infact there are evidences which proved that Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb granted land and cash to Hindu Temples for their up keep and maintenance.


Dr. Pandey came across such evidences during 1948-1953 first, when he was the Chairman of Allahabad Municipality. He had to deal with the claims of two Hindu priests over the rights of a temple and its properties, as the chairman of Allahabad Municipality.

One of the Hindu temple priest filed, as evidences to his claims, some documents which were in fact Shahi-Farman (Royal-Orders) issued by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

The Hindu priest claimed, on the basis of these royal documents of Mughal era, that his fore fathers were granted lands as well as cash from Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.


In those times, even eminent personalities like Dr. Pandey fell prey to the false propaganda that Mughal Emperor was a fanatic Islamic ruler who destroyed temples and forced conversions.
Therefore, he thought maybe these are fake documents which have been forged to make a claim over the temple and temple properties.

Dr. Pandey, therefore referred these documents to Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, who was an eminent jurist, distinguished lawyer apart from an expert in Persian & Arabic who had vast knowledge of historical documents. He was also a Brahmin, like Dr. Pandey himself. He had the expertise to examine the official documents from Muslim and Mughal periods, which were in Persian.

Dr. Pandey sent those documents, claimed as Royal Order issued by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru for scrutiny. Sir TejBahadur Sapru examined the documents and declared that those were genuine Royal Farmans issued by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

For Dr. B.N Pandey, it was a historical discovery of a fact which conveyed a different story about Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Thus, Dr. B. N. Pandey wrote letters to Chief Priests of many famous temples, all over the country, requesting them to send him a copy of any Farman issued by Mughal King Aurangzeb, if any, that they may have in their possession.


Dr. B.N Pandey wrote that response to his letter was over whelming. He got not only copies of Farmans of Mughal King Aurangzeb issued to Hindu temples, but also from Jain temples & Sikh Gurudwaras.

Many famous and principal Hindu temples, Jain temples & Sikh Gurudwaras had in their possession, Royal Orders by Mughal King Aurangzeb, which granted them lands and jagirs which consisted of large parcels of agricultural lands during the period 1659 and 1685.


Such lands were granted by the Mughal Emperor so that income generated from these lands may be used to incur the expenses of maintenance of these Hindu, Jain temples and Sikh Gurudwaras.

Dr. B.N Pandey  was convinced by these evidences that all allegations made against the Mughal King Aurangzeb of being anti-Hindu who destroyed Hindu temples were false and fabricated.


While huge pile of evidences he collected during his research proved that the Mughal King, on the contrary, granted land, Jagir, Wazifa, cash help to temples, Gurudwaras and Hindu, Jain, Sikh priests.

RAZIA SULTANA ~

The first women to sit on the delhi throne Razia Begum, sultan name, Razia al-Din(1205 – October 13, 1240), throne name Jalâlat-ud-Dîn Raziâ, usually referred to in history as Razia Sultan, was the Sultan of Delhi from 10 November 1236 – 14 October 1240. She was famously the only female ever to rule the Delhi Sultanate



EARLIER LIFE & CARRIER ~

Razia Sultana was the daughter of Shamsuddin Iltutmish, who had begun life as a Turkslave and ended it as Sultan of Delhi.[3]Iltutmish had been a great favorite of his master, Qutb ud din Aibak, the first Sultan of Delhi, so Aibak had his daughter Qutub Begummarried to Iltutmish. Qutub Begum was the mother of Razia, and Razia was thus a maternal granddaughter of Qutb ud din Aibak and Shamshad Begum (Valide Sultan). Razia also had a brother, Nasiruddin Mahmud. Razia, being a member of the ruling family, grew up in privileged circumstances and was close to the levers of power both within the harem (where her mother was dominant) and in the court, where she was a favorite of both her maternal grandfather and her father. This was in contrast with her half-brothers Rukn ud din Firuz and Muiz ud din Bahram, who were the sons of former slave-girls, and thus grew up quite distant from the centers of power.

When Razia was five years old, Qutubuddin Aibak died and was succeeded by Iltutmish. Razia was a favorite of her father, and as a child was allowed to be present around him while he dealt with affairs of state. Later, like some other princesses of the time, she was trained to administer a kingdom if required, in the absence of her father or her husband.[4]Her abilities and diligence, no less than her mother’s royal lineage, commended Razia to Iltutmish and made her a confirmed favorite with him. Nevertheless, it was Iltutmish’s eldest son Nasiruddin Mahmud (Razia’s brother) who was groomed by Iltutmish to succeed him.

However, Nasir ud din Mahmud died suddenly in 1229 CE, and Iltutmish was at a loss as to a successor, because he felt that none of his several surviving sons, born of his other wives, were worthy of the throne. In 1230, he had to leave the capital in order to lead an invasion against Gwalior. During his absence, Razia acted as a competent regent, with the assistance of the Sultan’s trusted minister. Iltutmish returned to Delhi in 1231 after having captured Gwalior, and the issue of succession was foremost on his mind. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and only female ruler of Delhi Sultanate. However, after Iltutmish died on Wednesday 30 April 1236, Razia’s half-brother Rukn ud din Firuz was elevated to the throne instead.

Rukn ud din Firuz’s reign was short. With Iltutmish’s widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Rukn ud din abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Rukn ud din and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated[5] after only six months in power. With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultana of Delhi.[6]

Razia was an efficient ruler and possessed all the qualities of a monarch. According to Minhaj-i-Siraj, she was “sagacious, just, beneficent, the patron of the learned, a dispenser of justice, the cherisher of her subjects, and of warlike talent, and endowed with all the admirable attributes and qualifications necessary for a king. She is also famous for her romantic involvement and legends with her lover and later turned husband, Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia.

LOVE LIFE ~


Razia and Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, the governor of Bathinda, were childhood friends. Some recognize them as childhood sweethearts who were strongly in love with each other. However, when Altunia was in Bathinda, the Turkic aristocracy spread rumors about Razia’s romantic involvement with Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, an Abyssinian Siddi(Habshi) slave. This triggered Altunia’s jealousy and he led a rebellion against Razia, simply with the intention of getting her back.[8]

A battle between Razia and Altunia ensued in which Yaqut was killed and Razia was taken prisoner.She was incarcerated in April 1240 at Qila Mubarak at Bathinda. While in prison, Razia was allowed to go to Hajirattan mosque to offer prayers on Fridays in a special palki. She was kept in royalty and Altunia visited her regularly. It was then that their love triumphed and finally she was released in August 1240. Razia won over Altunia with love and married him.

CONSPIRACY FOR DOWNFALL ~

.After Razia ascended to the throne, the Turkic nobles formed a plan of an organized resistance. They wanted to weaken royalty permanently vis-a-vis the nobility. The leader of this conspiracy was Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, Razia’s lover, who had risen from the office of the governor of Bathinda. Altunia felt that no large-scale rising was possible in Delhi as long as the sultana was present there because of her precautionary measures. The plans were therefore laid out with great care. Altunia first raised the standard of revolt. Razia immediately proceeded against him at the head of an army. Altunia and his fellow-conspirators captured Razia. She was entrusted to the care of Altunia and the rest of the nobles returned to the capital.

DEATH OR ASSASSINATION ~

Tomb of Razia Sultan in Bulbul-i-Khan near Turkmen Gate, Delhi

Meanwhile, Razia’s half-brother, Muiz ud din Bahram, had usurped the throne. Altunia and Razia undertook a military campaign to take back the sultanate from Bahram, but they were defeated on the 24th of Rabi’ al-awwal638 A.H. (October 1240). They fled Delhi and reached Kaithal the next day, where their remaining forces abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of Hindu Jats and were robbed and killed on the 25th of Rabi’ al-awwal 638 A.H.,[11] this date corresponds to October 13, 1240.[12] Bahram, for his part, reigned from 1240 to 1242, but would be dethroned for incompetence.

The place of Razia’s burial is disputed by historians. There are 3 places where Razia is claimed to be buried. They are Delhi, Kaithaland Tonk, Rajasthan.Some people also say that she was buried where she died in the hands of the Jats.

RAZIA SULTANA LEGACY ~

Billon Jital of Razia

Razia was reportedly devoted to the cause of her empire and to her subjects. There is no record that she made any attempt to remain aloof from her subjects, rather it appears she preferred to mingle among them. She especially protected and preserved the indigenous cultures of her Hindu subjects during her reign.[14]

Razia established schools, academies, centers for research, and public libraries that included the works of ancient Hindu philosophers along with the Qur’an and the traditions of Prophet of Islam Muhammad Sallallahu Allaihiyi Wassallam. Her reign was characterised as spirited and dynamic by many.

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